United States from the colonial era until the late 19th century.
The coverlets of 18th century America were twill woven with a linen warp and a woolen weft. The wool was most often dyed with indigo, but madder red (also referred to as Turkey Red, a walnut brown,and a lighter "Williamsburg blue" were also used. Later colors (mid 19th century) included green and a mustard gold.
Beginning at the turn of the 19th century, simple twill-woven coverlets were replaced by patterned hand-woven coverlets made in two different ways:
Overshot weave coverlets were made with a plain, natural cotton warp and weft and repeating geometric patterns made with a supplementary dyed woolen wefts. Made on a simple four-harness loom, overshot coverlets were often made in the home and remained a common craft in rural Appalachia into the early 20th century.[Most of the coverlets were woven by men, though women did sometimes create them as well. Summer-winter coverlets were reversible (as seen here - my own find) ; the summer-winter term refers to the structure and NOT the color. The summer-winter coverlet should not be confused with double weave and is more closely related to overshot. Like double weave, it is dark on one side and light on the other but there is only one layer of cloth, making it is somewhat lightweight.
Double-cloth coverlets were double-woven with two sets of interconnected warps and wefts, requiring the more elaborate looms of professional weavers. Wool for these coverlets was spun (and often dyed) at home and then delivered to a local weaver who made up the coverlet.
Following the introduction of the jacquard loom in the early 1820s, machine-woven coverlets in large-scale floral designs became popular.
The larger coverlets, made of two widths of weaving tied together are referred to as "Tied Biederwand."
This work is a good example of the New York style. Many of the earliest New York weavers immigrated from Great Britain or Ireland where they had been trained in carpet weaving. Their training explains both the usual double weave structure and the appearance of New York coverlets. They are generally made of undyed cotton and indigo-dyed wool, with a structure much like woven carpets, and large medallions like the designs found on British carpets of the period. James Alexander, an immigrant from Britain. He had a weaving workshop in Orange County, New York. This example is likely from his workshop, since the eagles in the upper and lower borders are trademarks of his work. Each weaver of the Jacquard pieces had his own trademarks in style, and also often put his or her name on the pieces. These are remarkably beautiful examples of work that was intended to be used for everyday living.
Saturday, April 23, 2011
Friday, April 8, 2011
This little quilt is one of my early journal quilts. It is painted on a wholecloth ground.
For the physically challenged person, there is often isolation not just because of the challenge itself, but that of not being able to get out and connect with a wide network of people in many ways, something that we all likely take for granted. And there is another type of isolation that comes with having barely enough money to survive and having government regulations make it so hard for people who have any kind of challenge to work and earn money without losing their benefits.
I think too that without the all important social connections, it is difficult to teach oneself how and what is needed to do in order to do one's art more easily. More time is needed to try to create ways to deal with certain issues that have to be addressed, like how to set up the working space so that the work can be done at least somewhat comfortably.
As funding gets cut more and more, I suspect that will serve to isolate more people with physical challenges as well. The economic disparity of the classes does seem to keep them very separated from each others social class as well as within their own social class.
It is my dream and hope that ALL physically/developmentally artists who really want to practice their art can do so without feeling that overpoweringly isolated.